Friday, October 31, 2014

Foreign Policy Journal - Passover 3/6


ENGLISH
PORTUGUÊS
Foreign Policy Journal
Jornal de Política Externa
Passover 3/6
Páscoa 3/6
by John Hartung |September 6, 2014
Por John Hartung | 6 de setembro de 2014
Continued from
http://zqxjkv0.blogspot.com.br/2014/10/foreign-policy-journal-passover-26_30.html
According to the myth, just as his forefather Abraham left Babylon-cum-Iraq to find greener pastures in Canaan-cum-Palestine, Jacob-cum-Israel’s family left Canaan to escape a famine and join their estranged son and brother, Joseph. They arrived in Egypt as impoverished and bedraggled guests of a Pharaoh (Genesis 47:26-27). Several generations later they left Egypt with a standing army of 603,550 men, “every man able to go forth to war” (Numbers 1:45-46).6 Logistical support included “very many cattle, both flocks and herds” (Exodus 12:38), and having gained the trust and respect of their Egyptian neighbors, financing included several thousand kilograms of “borrowed” gold and silver (Exodus 38:24-25).7 The Israelites were able to leave Egypt with so much wealth and power because their god “passed over” his people’s houses when he killed all firstborn Egyptian children (Exodus 12:27). To this day, as instructed (Exodus 12:11-14), Judaism celebrates these fabled events as Passover, and Christianity tips its hat in respect and recognition.
De acordo com o mito, do mesmo modo que seu antepassado Abraão havia deixado Babilônia-Iraque para encontrar pastagens mais verdes em Canaã-Palestina, a família de Jacó-Israel deixou Canaã para escapar de fome e juntar-se a seu filho e irmão alienado, José. Eles chegaram ao Egito como hóspedes empobrecidos e desalinhados de um faraó (Gênesis 47:26-27). Diversas gerações mais tarde deixaram o Egito com exército permanente de 603.550 homens, “todos os capazes de sair à guerra” (Números 1:45-46).6 Apoio logístico incluía “ovelhas, gado, muitíssimos animais” (Êxodo 12:38), e havendo ganho confiança e respeito de seus vizinhos egípcios, o financiamento incluiu diversos milhares de quilos de ouro e prata “tomados emprestados” (Êxodo 38:24-25).7 Os israelitas conseguiram deixar o Egito com tanta riqueza e poder porque seu deus “passou por cima” das casas de seu povo quando matou todos os filhos primogênitos egípcios (Êxodo 12:27). Até hoje, como instruído (Êxodo 12:11-14), o judaísmo comemora esses eventos míticos como Páscoa, e o cristianismo tira seu chapéu com respeito e reconhecimento.
It is easy to imagine the outrage that would be rightfully felt today by people who revere the god that Jesus prayed to,8 by Christians and Jews, if some other group of people celebrated a story that entailed the killing of all firstborn Jewish or Christian children as a “sport” of their god.
É fácil imaginar a indignação que com razão seria sentida hoje por pessoas que reverenciam o deus a quem Jesus orava,8 por cristãos e judeus, se algum outro grupo de pessoas comemorasse história que implicasse a matança de todo primogênito judeu ou cristão como “esporte” do deus dele.
JUST AS TODAY’S PALESTINIANS ARE FORCED TO PAY for what yesterday’s Germans did to yesterday’s Jews, the express purpose of the exodus was to take “great and goodly cities, which you did not build, and houses full of all good things, which you did not fill, and cisterns hewn out, which you did not hew, and vineyards and olive trees, which you did not plant” (Deuteronomy 6:10-11)—not from people who were portrayed as the Israelites’ victims-turned-oppressors, not from a Pharaoh and his legions, but from entirely separate people who had been living in Canaan long before Abraham left Iraq.
DO MESMO MODO QUE OS PALESTINOS DE HOJE SÃO FORÇADOS A PAGAR pelo que os alemães de ontem fizeram aos judeus, o propósito expresso do êxodo foi o de tomar “grandes e boas cidades, que não edificaste, e casas cheias de tudo o que é bom, casas que não encheste; e poços abertos, que não abriste; vinhais e olivais, que não plantaste” (Deuteronômio 6:10-11) — não de pessoas retratadas como vítimas dos israelitas tornadas opressoras, não de um faraó e suas legiões, mas de povo inteiramente separado que já vivia em Canaã muito antes de Abraão deixar o Iraque.
Above all else, to insure that the god who was the source of Israel’s solidarity would not face competition from the gods of the people that they were instructed to conquer … to guarantee that Israel would be The Jewish State of Israel9 … the original Zionists scripted their god to command his followers to commit clean-sweep genocide:
Acima de tudo, para assegurar que o deus que era fonte da solidariedade de Israel não encontraria competição dos deuses das pessoas que Israel tinha sido instruído a conquistar … para garantir que Israel fosse o Estado Judaico de Israel9 … os sionistas originais escreveram roteiro segundo o qual seu deus ordenava a seus seguidores que cometessem genocídio cabal:
In the cities of these peoples that the Lord your God gives you for an inheritance you shall save alive nothing that breathes, but you shall utterly destroy them, the Hittites and the Amorites, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites [the people of Jerusalem], as the Lord your God has commanded; that they may not teach you to do according to all their abominable practices which they have done in the service of their Gods, and so to sin against the LORD your God (Deuteronomy 20:16-18).
Das cidades destas nações que o Senhor teu Deus te dá em herança não deixarás com vida tudo o que tem fôlego. Antes, como te ordenou o Senhor, destruí-las-ás totalmente: os heteus, os amorreus, os cananeus, os ferezeus, os heveus e os jebuseus [o povo de Jerusalém]; para que não vos ensinem a fazer segundo todas as suas abominações, que fizeram a seus deuses, pois pecaríeis contra o Senhor, vosso Deus (Deuteronômio 20:16-18).
They should be utterly destroyed and should receive no mercy but be exterminated, as the Lord commanded Moses … Utterly destroy all that they have; do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, infant and suckling (Joshua 11:20 … First Samuel 15:3).
Porquanto do Senhor vinha o endurecimento do seu coração para saírem à guerra contra Israel, a fim de que fossem totalmente destruídos e não lograssem piedade alguma; antes, fossem de todo destruídos, como o Senhor tinha ordenado a Moisés … Destrói totalmente tudo o que tiver, e nada lhe poupes; porém matarás homem e mulher, meninos e crianças de peito (Josué 11:20 … I Samuel 15:3).
You will make them as a blazing oven when you appear. The Lord will swallow them up in his wrath; and fire will consume them. You will destroy their offspring from the earth, and their children from among the sons of men (Psalms 21:9-10).10
Tu os tornarás como em fornalha ardente, quando te manifestares; o Senhor, na sua indignação, os consumirá, o fogo os devorará. Destruirás da terra a sua posteridade e a sua descendência, de entre os filhos dos homens (Salmos 21:9-10).10
Although commandments to commit absolute genocide were limited to the ancient analogue of today’s Palestinians and Bedouins, pending acquiescence to slavery, the balance of the world’s out-groups were under threat of partial genocide (Deuteronomy 20:10-15):
Embora mandamentos para comissão de genocídio absoluto ficassem limitados ao análogo antigo dos atuais palestinos e beduínos, ressalvada aquiescência à escravidão, os demais grupos estrangeiros ficavam sob ameaça de genocídio parcial (Deuteronômio 20:10-15):
When you draw near to a city to fight against it, offer terms of peace to it. And if its answer to you is peace and it opens to you, then all the people who are found in it shall do forced labor for you and shall serve you. But if it makes no peace with you, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it; and when the LORD your God gives it into your hand you shall put all its males to the sword, but the women and the little ones, the cattle, and everything else in the city, all its spoil, you shall take as booty for yourselves; and you shall enjoy the spoil of your enemies,11 which the LORD your God has given you. Thus you shall do to all the cities which are very far from you, which are not cities of the nations here.
Quando te aproximares de cidade para pelejar contra ela, oferecer-lhe-ás paz. Se a sua resposta é de paz, e te abrir as portas, todo o povo que nela se achar será sujeito a trabalhos forçados e te servirá. Porém se ela não fizer paz contigo, mas te fizer guerra, então a sitiarás. E o Senhor teu Deus a dará na tua mão; e todos os do sexo masculino que houver nela passarás a fio de espada; mas as mulheres, e as crianças, e os animais, e tudo o que houver na cidade, todo o seu despojo, tomarás para ti; e desfrutarás o despojo dos inimigos,11 que o Senhor, teu Deus, te deu. Assim farás a todas as cidades que estiverem mui longe de ti, que não forem das cidades destes povos.
Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession. You shall break them with a rod of iron, and dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel (Psalms 2:8-9). And the peoples will take them and bring them to their place, and the house of Israel will possess them in the LORD’s land as male and female slaves (Isaiah 14:2). Thus says the LORD: “The wealth of Egypt and the merchandise of Ethiopia, and the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over to you and be yours, they shall follow you; they shall come over in chains and bow down to you. They will make supplication to you, saying: ‘God is with you only, and there is no other, no god besides him (Isaiah 45:14). And nations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising … Foreigners shall build up your walls, and their kings shall minister to you … your gates shall be open continually; day and night they shall not be shut; that men may bring to you the wealth of the nations, with their kings led in procession. For the nation and kingdom that will not serve you shall perish; those nations shall be utterly laid waste (Isaiah 60:1-12).
Pede-me, e eu te darei as nações por herança, e as extremidades da terra por tua possessão. Com vara de ferro as regerás e as despedaçarás como vaso de oleiro (Salmos 2:8-9). Os povos os tomarão e os levarão aos lugares deles, e a casa de Israel possuirá esses povos por servos e servas, na terra do Senhor (Isaías 14:2). Assim diz o Senhor: “A riqueza do Egito e as mercadorias da Etiópia, e os sabeus, homens de grande estatura, passarão ao teu poder e serão teus; seguir-te-ão, irão em grilhões, diante de ti se prostrarão e te farão as suas súplicas, dizendo: ‘Só contigo está Deus, e não há outro que seja Deus (Isaías 45:14). As nações se encaminham para a tua luz, e os reis para o resplendor que te nasceu … Estrangeiros edificarão os teus muros, e os seus reis te servirão … As tuas portas estarão abertas de contínuo; nem de dia nem de noite se fecharão, para que te sejam trazidas riquezas das nações e, conduzidos com elas, os seus reis. Porque a nação e o reino que não te servirem perecerão; sim, essas nações serão de todo assoladas (Isaías 60:1-12).
6. Approximately the size of today’s Israeli Defense Force, including reservists (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/israel/army.htm), which receives a 30 billion dollar gift certificate from the United States each decade to spend on U.S. military equipment (http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/1.583812).
7. There were two sets of sacred weights. A sacred talent equalled either 48 or 33 kilograms and a shekel equalled either 16 or 10.8 grams.
8. The concoction of the Nicene Creed in 325 A.D. notwithstanding, when Jesus prayed “Our Father who art in heaven …” he was not talking to himself. If one of Jesus’ disciples had asked him “Are you the god that you pray to?” … Jesus would have thought the question to be blasphemous. Western civilization is dominated by Christians and Christianity is theologically a form of Judaism. The central theological difference is that Christian Judaism holds that the messiah prophesied in The Bible (to Christians, The ‘Old’ Testament) came and left and is coming back, while traditional Judaism perceives that messiah as yet to come. Many of the approximately 30,000 followers of Menachem Schneerson in Brooklyn, New York, also believe, like Christians in reference to Jesus, that Schneerson (1902-1994) was the messiah and will be coming back [http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/jewish-world-features/.premium-1.602359]. Each of these groups, ranging in size from about 2.2 billion to 16 million to 10 thousand, is waiting for the biblical messiah … two of them for his return and one for his debut. All of that is too fantastic to warrant further comment, but the fact that Christians worship the same god that traditional Jews worship (Our Father who art in heaven)—and the fact that two thirds of the Christian Bible is the Jewish Bible in its entirety—has serious consequences. It means that reverence for some form of Zionism is inherent to Christianity—right wing, left wing, and every Christian persuasion in between.
9. Zeev Sternhell has accurately perceived the Israeli demand for recognition of Israel as ‘The Jewish State of Israel’ as a demand for “Unconditional Palestinian Surrender.” Sternhell, Z. (2014) “Unconditional Palestinian surrender.” Haaretz, April 18, 2014. http://www.haaretz.com/opinion/.premium-1.586127.
10. For additional examples of the commandment to commit genocide against out-groups and boasts of having done so, see: Numbers 21:2-3; 21:34-35; 24:8; 24:19-20; Deuteronomy 2:34; 3:2-6; 3:21; 7:1-2; 7:16; 7:23-24; 9:3; 11:24-25; 31:3-5; 33:27; Joshua 2:10; 6:21; 8:2; 8:24-26; 10:1; 10:28; 10:35; 10:37; 10:39-40; 11:11-14; 11:21; Judges 1:17; 3:29; First Samuel 15:8; 15:15; 15:18; 15:20; First Chronicles 4:41; Ester 9:5-9; 15-16). See also: Rabbi Dove Lior on Israel’s right to totally destroy Gaza at http://www.jpost.com/Operation-Protective-Edge/Rabbi-Lior-Jewish-law-permits-destruction-of-Gaza-to-bring-safety-to-Israel-368605 … and “When Genocide is Permissible” by Yochanan Gordon at: http://mondoweiss.net/2014/08/yochanan-genocide-permissible.html. See also Michael Prior, “Confronting the Bible’s Ethnic Cleansing in Palestine.” The Link, December 2000.
11. For additional accounts of enjoying the rape of female spoil of an enemy after partial genocide [sparing girls (“the little ones”) and virgin women], see Hartung, J. (2012) “Chastity, Fidelity and Conquest: Biblical Rules for Women and War.” In: Shackelford, T., Weekes-Shackelford, V. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War (pp. 77-90). Oxford University Press.
To be continued at

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Foreign Policy Journal - Passover 2/6


ENGLISH
PORTUGUÊS
Foreign Policy Journal
Jornal de Política Externa
Passover 2/6
Páscoa 2/6
by John Hartung |September 6, 2014
Por John Hartung |6 de setembro de 2014
Continued from
As often happens, control of wealth led to control of more wealth (Genesis 47:14-17):
Como amiúde acontece, controle da riqueza levou a controle de mais riqueza (Gênesis 47:14-17):
And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, for the grain which they bought; and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house. And when the money was all spent in the land of Egypt, all the Egyptians came to Joseph, and said, “Give us food; why should we die before your eyes? For our money is gone.” And Joseph answered, “Give your cattle, and I will give you food in exchange for your cattle, if your money is gone.” So they brought their cattle to Joseph; and Joseph gave them food in exchange for the horses, the flocks, the herds, and the asses: and he supplied them with food in exchange for all their cattle that year.
Então José arrecadou todo o dinheiro que se achou na terra do Egito e na terra de Canaã, pelo cereal que compravam, e o recolheu à casa de Faraó. Tendo-se acabado, pois, o dinheiro na terra do Egito e na terra de Canaã, foram todos os egípcios a José e disseram: Dá-nos pão; por que haveremos de morrer em tua presença? Porquanto o dinheiro nos falta. Respondeu José: Se vos falta o dinheiro, trazei o vosso gado; em troca do vosso gado eu vos suprirei. Então trouxeram o seu gado a José; e José lhes deu pão em troca de cavalos, de rebanhos, de gado e de jumentos; e os sustentou de pão aquele ano em troca do seu gado.
Now Joseph had cornered, to borrow Clemens’ term, all of the money, all of the cattle, and all of the grain. What was left? Only the people, so Joseph “made slaves of them” (Genesis 47:18-21):
Agora José havia controlado/monopolizado, para tomar de empréstimo a expressão de Clemens, todo o dinheiro, todo o gado, e todo o cereal. O que restou? Apenas as pessoas e, pois, José “tornou-as escravas” (Gênesis 47:18-21):
They said to him, “We will not hide from my lord that our money is all spent; and the herds of cattle are my lord’s; there is nothing left in the sight of my lord but our bodies and our lands. Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land for food, and we with our land will be slaves to Pharaoh” . . . So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for all the Egyptians sold their fields, because the famine was severe upon them. The land became Pharaoh’s; and as for the people, he made slaves of them from one end of Egypt to the other.
E lhe disseram: Não ocultaremos a meu senhor que se acabou totalmente o dinheiro; e meu senhor já possui os animais; nada nos resta diante de meu senhor, senão o nosso corpo e a nossa terra. Por que haveremos de perecer diante dos teus olhos, tanto nós como a nossa terra? Compra-nos a nós e a nossa terra em troco de pão, e nós e a nossa terra seremos escravos de Faraó; dá-nos semente para que vivamos e não morramos, e a terra não fique deserta. Assim, comprou José toda a terra do Egito para Faraó, porque os egípcios venderam cada um o seu campo, porquanto a fome era extrema sobre eles; e a terra passou a ser de Faraó. Quanto ao povo, ele o escravizou de uma a outra extremidade da terra do Egito.
After arranging the enslavement of the Pharaoh’s subjects, Joseph invited his family to join him. The Pharaoh was most obliging (Genesis 45:18; 47:6):
Depois de ter perpetrado a escravização dos súditos de Faraó, José convidou sua família a juntar-se a ele. O Faraó foi mais do que solícito. (Gênesis 45:18; 47:6):
“Take your father and your households, and come to me, and I will give you the best of the land of Egypt, and you shall eat the fat of the land … The land of Egypt is before you; settle your father and your brothers in the best of the land.”
“Tomai o vosso pai e as vossas famílias e vinde para mim; dar-vos-ei o melhor da terra do Egito, e comereis a fartura da terra … A terra do Egito está perante ti; no melhor da terra faze habitar teu pai e teus irmãos.”
As discussed in the balance of Clemens’ essay, so began a sequence of events that presaged developments in the real history of several Diaspora host nations.5 And as if foretelling two thousand years of reactive racism, the Passover story developed a new Pharaoh who realized that he was in danger of becoming the tool of his predecessor’s tool (Genesis 47:27; Exodus 1:7-10):
Como discutido na avaliação do ensaio de Clemens, começou assim uma sequência de eventos que pressagiava desdobramentos na história real de diversas nações hospedeiras de diáspora.5 E como prevendo dois mil anos de racismo reativo, a história da Páscoa dos judeus engendrou novo faraó que percebeu estar em perigo de tornar-se instrumento do instrumento de seu predecessor (Gênesis 47:27; Êxodo 1:7-10):
Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt and they gained possessions in it, and were fruitful … and grew exceedingly strong; Now there arose a new Pharaoh over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. And he said to his people, “Behold, the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us. Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war befall us, they join our enemies and fight against us.”
Assim habitou Israel na terra do Egito, e tomaram possessão, e foram fecundos, … e muito se multiplicaram; ora, levantou-se novo faraó sobre o Egito, que não conhecera a José. Ele disse ao seu povo: “Eis que o povo dos filhos de Israel é mais numeroso e mais forte do que nós. Eia, usemos de astúcia para com ele, para que não se multiplique, e seja o caso que, vindo guerra, ele se ajunte com os nossos inimigos e peleje contra nós.”
Here the story becomes more familiar. The Pharaoh subjugated the Jews and oppressed them even more than his Egyptian subjects. And when the Jews’ new leader, Moses, tried to trick the Pharaoh into letting his people take a three day leave of absence with most of the nation’s wealth in tow (Exodus 3:18-22; 5:3), the Pharaoh said No! Then the god of the story, the god of Israel, sent horrible plagues to torture the Egyptians and the Pharaoh himself.
Neste ponto a história torna-se familiar. O faraó subjugou os judeus e os oprimiu mais do que a seus súditos egípcios. E quando o novo líder dos judeus, Moisés, tentou enganar o faraó para que este deixasse seu povo ausentar-se por três dias com a maior parte da riqueza da nação em seu poder (Êxodo 3:18-22; 5:3), o faraó disse Não! Então o deus da narrativa, o deus de Israel, enviou horríveis pragas para torturar os egípcios e o próprio faraó.
At several junctures the Pharaoh tried to make an accommodation with Moses, asking him to leave some wealth behind, but each time Moses refused (Exodus 8:25-28; 10:7-11, 24-26). And each time the god of the story “hardened” the Pharaoh’s otherwise amenable heart so that he, the god of Moses, would be able to show more of his power (Exodus 10:1-2):
Em diversas ocasiões o faraó tentou entrar em acordo com Moisés, pedindo-lhe que deixasse alguma riqueza para trás, mas Moisés todas as vezes recusou-se a fazê-lo (Êxodo 8:25-28; 10:7-11, 24-26). E a cada vez o deus da narrativa “endureceu” o coração normalmente sensível do faraó, de tal maneira que o deus de Moisés tivesse azo de dar mostra maior de seu poder (Êxodo 10:1-2):
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his officials, in order that I may show these signs and wonders of mine among them, and that you may tell your children and grandchildren how I have made sport of the Egyptians and what signs and wonders I have done among them—so that you may know that I am the Lord.”
Disse o Senhor a Moisés: “Vai ter com Faraó; porque lhe endureci o coração e o de seus oficiais, para que eu faça estes meus sinais no meio deles e para que contes a teus filhos e aos filhos de teus filhos como zombei dos egípcios e quantos prodígios fiz no meio deles  — e para que saibas que eu sou o Senhor.”
Finally, we come to the coup de grace that had been devised by Moses and his god (Exodus 3:21-22 & 4:21-23) from the beginning (Exodus 12:29-33, 35, 36):
Finalmente chegamos ao coup de grace que havia sido concebido por Moisés e seu deus (Êxodo 3:21-22 e 4:21-23) desde o começo (Êxodo 12:29-33, 35, 36):
At midnight the Lord smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the first-born of the captive who was in the dungeon . . . And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where one was not dead. And he summoned Moses and Aaron by night, and said, “Rise up, go forth from among my people, both you and the people of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as you have said. Take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone.” … And the Egyptians were urgent with the people, to send them out of the land in haste; for they said, “We are all dead men.” … The people of Israel had also done as Moses told them, for they had asked of the Egyptians jewelry of silver and of gold, and clothing; and the Lord had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. Thus they despoiled the Egyptians.
Aconteceu que, à meia-noite, feriu o Senhor todos os primogênitos na terra do Egito, desde o primogênito de Faraó, que se assentava no seu trono, até ao primogênito do cativo que estava na enxovia . . . Levantou-se Faraó de noite, ele, todos os seus oficiais, e todos os egípcios; e fez-se grande clamor no Egito, pois não havia casa em que não houvesse morto. Então, naquela mesma noite, Faraó chamou a Moisés e a Arão e lhes disse: “Levantai-vos, saí do meio do meu povo, tanto vós como os filhos de Israel; ide, servi ao Senhor, como tendes dito. Levai também convosco vossas ovelhas e vosso gado, como tendes dito, e ide-vos embora.” … Os egípcios apertavam com o povo, apressando-se em lançá-lo fora da terra, pois diziam: “Todos morreremos.” … Fizeram pois os filhos de Israel conforme a palavra de Moisés e pediram aos egípcios objetos de prata, e objetos de ouro, e roupas. E o Senhor fez que seu povo encontrasse favor da parte dos egípcios, de maneira que estes lhes davam o que pediam. E despojaram os egípcios.
5. Perhaps best documented by Bernard Weinryb for 12th to 19th Century Poland [Weinryb, B.D. (1972) The Jews of Poland: A Social and Economic History of the Jewish Community in Poland from 1100 to 1800. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America] and by Yitzhak Baer for 11th to 15th Century Spain [Baer, Y. (1961) A History of the Jews in Christian Spain, vols. I & II, trans. L. Schoffman. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America] as detailed by Kevin McDonald [MacDonald, K. (2002) A People That Shall Dwell Alone: Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy, with Diaspora Peoples. Lincoln, NE, Writer’s Club Press]. For the United States’ entanglement with Zionism since 1947, see Mearsheimer and Walt [Mearsheimer, J. J. & Walt, S. (2007). The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux (see also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Israel_Lobby_and_U.S._Foreign_Policy)].
To be continued at
http://zqxjkv0.blogspot.com.br/2014/10/foreign-policy-journal-passover-36.html